Cocoa Pollination for Optimised Production

Aitken, T.H.G., Wirth, W.W., Williams, R.W., Davies, J.B. & Tikasingh, E.S. (1975) A review of the bloodsucking midges of Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Journal of Entomology Series B, Taxonomy, 44, 101-144. [journal link]
  Billes, D.J. (1941) Pollination of Theobroma cacao L. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 17, 151.
  Brew, A.H. & Boorman, J. (1993) Preliminary observations on the classification of Forcipomyia midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) of Ghana with special reference to species involved in the pollination of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). Café, Cacao, Thé, 37.
  Figueroa, C.M.A. & De La Cruz, L.J. (1984) Dynamics and incidence of Forcipomyia spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in the pollination of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Palmira Valle, Colombia. Acta Agronomica (Palmira), 34.
  Flores Flores, J.D. (1976) Identification and preliminary taxonomic classification of mosquitoes Forcipomyia spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) associated with pollination of cacao in Ecuador. Folia Entomologica Mexicana, 36.
  Gabriel, D., Araujo, J.B.M., Coral, F.J., Tucci, M.L.S., Kupper, R.B., Martins, A.L.M., Saes, L.A. & Junior, G.G. (1991) Insects associated with pollination of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in São Paulo State, Brazil. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 20.
  Hurtado-Mejia, J.G. & Velez-Angel, R. (1999) Midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) associated with cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) from Fredonia and Tamesis (Antioquia, Colombia). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 43.
  Kaufmann, T. (1974) Behavioral biology of a cocoa pollinator Forcipomyia inornatipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Ghana. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 47. [journal link]
  Kaufmann, T. (1975a) Cocoa pollination by males of Forcipomyia squamipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Ghana. Tropical Agriculture, 52.
  Macfie, J.W.S. (1940) Ceratopogonidae (Diptera) from British Guiana and Trinidad. Part 1. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London. Series B, Taxonomy, 9, 179-186. [pdf]
  Posnette, A. (1944) Pollination of cacao in Trinidad. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 21, 115-118.
  Soria, S. de J., Wirth, W.W. & Chapman, R.K. (1980) Insect pollination of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Costa Rica 1. Preliminary list of the ceratopogonid midges collected from flowers. Revista Theobroma, 10.
  Soria, S.de J., Wirth, W.W. & Sanchez, P.A. (1981) Ceratopogonid midges (Diptera: Nematocera) collected from cacao flowers in Caucagua Miranda, Venezuela. Revista Theobroma, 11.
  Spinelli, G.R., Ronderos, M.M., Marino, P.I., Carrasco, D.S. & Ferreira, R.L.M. (2007) Description of Culicoides (Mataemyia) felippebauerae sp. n., Forcipomyia musae immatures, and occurrence of F. genualis, breeding in banana stems in Brazilian Amazonia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 102, 659-669.
  Winder, J.A. (1977) Field observations on Ceratopogonidae and other Diptera: Nematocera associated with cocoa flowers in Brazil. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 67. [pdf]
  Wirth, W.W. & Waugh, W.T. (1976) 5 new neotropical Dasyhelea midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) associated with the culture of cocoa. Studia Entomologica, 19.